Hebei Province has successfully developed a new pl

2022-10-03
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Hebei Province successfully developed a new plastic oiling process

open the valve of the oil outlet, and the black raw oil slowly flows out. After simple processing, 98% of the raw oil will become diesel or gasoline for production and living, and the quality of the oil products will meet the national standards

"this is a set of process equipment that can realize the flexible oiling of pollution-free waste plastics." On July 16, Li Yong, general manager of Sanhe Fuhai special equipment manufacturing Co., Ltd., told the author, "its successful research and development has solved the problem of plastic waste treatment, realized no pollution in the treatment process, and at the same time, waste becomes energy, giving birth to the greater value of waste plastics."

on May 28 this year, at the "Research on the energy utilization of waste plastics" seminar of the development research center of the State Council, this set of technology was recognized by experts from the solid waste management center of the Ministry of environmental protection, the national development and Reform Commission and Tsinghua University. Among them, Jin Yong, an academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering and President of the Institute of chemical science and technology of Tsinghua University, said: "the whole set of equipment has unique craftsmanship and ingenious conception."

the first "flexible" process, with an oil yield of 95%

converting waste plastics into oil, which is equivalent to a reverse reaction process

"plastics are polyethylene, polypropylene and other products produced by the polymerization of olefin molecules in petroleum." Li Yong said that by cracking the polymerized macromolecules in waste plastics at high temperature, the molecular chain breaks and depolymerizes into small molecules, and small olefin molecules can be converted into gasoline and diesel

although the direction of plastic oiling is well known and theoretically possible, how to achieve pollution-free, high oil yield, industrialization and continuous production has become a worldwide problem that needs to be solved urgently. Domestic research in this regard has been carried out as an emerging technology industry for more than 30 years, and there has been no breakthrough

"the difficulty is that plastic oiling is a complete set of system equipment, involving oil refining, machinery manufacturing, industrial design, automation control and other disciplines. In the specific test process, a deviation in the adjustment of a process detail or equipment parameters will lead to the disorder of the whole chain, and there is no previous experience to learn from." Li Yong said

to my surprise, Fuhai company, which broke through this technological gap, turned out to be a local private enterprise in Sanhe City. Li Yong began to study plastic oiling technology in 2010. After visiting relevant experts from China University of petroleum, Beijing University of chemical technology and other places, he has invested more than 40 million yuan. After continuous test and summary, he took the lead in developing this set of equipment in China in June 2013. Li Yong named it "pollution-free waste plastic flexible oiling process"

"the whole process is not only conducive to the production of oil products," Li Yong said, "but also has a high oil production rate, up to 95%."

solve the problem of "fluidization" and turn waste plastics into wealth

in the plastic oiling workshop of Fuhai company, waste plastics enter the feed inlet, are transported by conveyor belt to the highest device in the equipment - heating furnace after pretreatment, and then go through the treatment of pyrolysis reactor, catalytic reaction tower, fractionation tower and cooling tower from top to bottom, and the feed oil flows out of the end outlet

the whole process looks like water to canal, but there are many problems to be solved in research and development, including the fluidization of waste plastics

there are generally two methods for the traditional oily utilization of waste plastics. The simplest and most "indigenous oil refining" method is thermal cracking. Waste plastics are loaded into high-temperature heating furnaces for thermal cracking. The disadvantages are high reaction temperature, long time, high energy consumption, and a large amount of waste residue and waste gas are discharged. Another method is catalytic cracking, which mixes the catalyst with waste plastics for heating. It has fast reaction and low energy consumption, but there are many impurities in the oil

"as plastic is a poor conductor of heat, when using these two methods, in the high-temperature furnace, the plastic close to the inner wall of the furnace will quickly carbonize, and the plastic a little farther away from the furnace has not been fully liquefied, and the plastic cannot be fully cracked, so it will cause the problems of low oil yield and poor oil quality." Li Yong said that what is more important is that these two kinds of process equipment can only use intermittent operation, and cannot carry out industrial continuous production. "That is, after the pyrolysis of a furnace of plastic, you must wait for the furnace to cool before adding materials. Before adding materials, you must clean up the attachments on the inner wall of the furnace."

however, the flexible oiling equipment adopts a special liquid slurry forming process. By reasonably controlling the chemical reaction conditions, the circulation of the process flow is carried out, so that all plastics can realize liquid fluidization in the whole reaction process. "The liquid plastic is not easy to block the pipeline and form a large number of attachments on the inner wall of the equipment, which avoids the problem that the cleaning equipment can only operate intermittently and greatly improves the treatment efficiency." Li Yong said that at present, this set of equipment can handle up to 300 tons of plastic waste per day

in order to realize the continuous treatment of waste plastics, they also developed a "pneumatic dense closed feed inlet device". When the raw materials are pushed into the heating furnace, the air pump immediately seals the furnace mouth, "pushing and sealing at the same time, realizing the fully closed continuous operation of the whole process flow."

The breakthrough of flexible oiling technology has opened up a new path for expanding energy. Li Yong said that compared with 60% - 70% of crude oil refined into gasoline and diesel, 98% of the raw oil produced by plastic oiling can be refined into gasoline and diesel. "One ton of gasoline and diesel produced by plastic oiling is equivalent to 2.2 tons of crude oil."

at present, the energy utilization rate of waste plastics in developed countries is more than 70%, while the recycling rate of domestic waste plastics is only 22%, which means that more than 30 million tons of waste plastics produced in China every year are wasted, which not only wastes resources, but also pollutes the environment

"if the flexible oiling process is used, these plastics will become wealth." Li Yong calculated an account: if the technology is industrialized, the country can produce more than 20 million tons of diesel oil every year using waste plastics, with a market price of more than 200 billion yuan, which is equivalent to reducing the use of 60million tons of crude oil to extract insulation failure diesel oil, equivalent to 70% of the country's annual imported crude oil, higher than the peak oil output of Daqing Oilfield of 55million tons that year, and equivalent to the discovery of a new "Daqing Oilfield" for the country. "Moreover, due to the wide range of raw materials, this' oil field 'will spread all over the country, neither polluting the environment nor changing the geological structure."

closed and non oxidizing method is adopted, and the treatment process is nearly zero pollution

clear, transparent, light yellow, no different from gasoline in gas stations. On July 16, at Fuhai renewable energy equipment and Process Research Institute, the author saw the gasoline "turned" from waste plastics

"the flash point, density, viscosity, ash content and other indicators of this oil are higher than the national standards through the detection and analysis of the Academy of petrochemical sciences." Li Yong said that the oil is not only of high quality, but also the whole production process is almost zero pollution

in the meeting room of Fuhai company, when I open the window, I can't smell the pungent smell of "indigenous refining", but can only see the faint white smoke from a chimney on the top of the heating furnace in operation not far away

Li Yong introduced that at present, the waste plastic treatment in China is 2 Please note that this machine must be safely and accurately grounded through landfilling, incineration, granulation, etc. Landfilling takes up a lot of land and produces secondary pollution; The toxic and harmful substances produced by incineration are difficult to be completely treated and pollute the environment; Granulation requires clean plastics, and raw materials need to be cleaned in advance, which will waste a lot of water resources

"Our flexible oiling equipment and process have very low requirements for raw materials, that is, low-quality plastics that can no longer be recycled. Therefore, compared with other treatment methods, it does not occupy land; raw materials do not need to be washed with water, and there is no waste water discharge; due to the closed and non oxidizing method, the parts of plastics that can be converted into oil products are collected step by step through three temperatures, low, medium and high, so as to truly 'squeeze dry and eat clean', which is also basic There is no waste residue. The whole set of closed equipment is only designed with a discharge port in the heating furnace to discharge a small amount of waste gas. It can realize the environmental protection and efficient utilization of waste plastics, and functional personal care polymer plateau materials based on polyurethane (PU) technology. "

Li Yong said that the whole set of process equipment of Fuhai company has passed the test of Beijing Boni Testing Co., Ltd., a professional testing organization. The emission concentrations of soot, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride are 4.5mg/m3, 28mg/m3, 4mg/m3 and 0.34mg/m3 respectively, which is far lower than the national standard

at the end of this year, Fuhai company will invest and build a flexible oiling process production line of zero pollution waste plastics with a daily treatment capacity of 100 tons in Sanhe City. It is understood that after the completion of the production line, it can take the lead in solving the white pollution problem in Langfang area, and even radiate the surrounding areas to help deal with the plastic waste in Beijing and Tianjin

"the more important thing is to promote and demonstrate." Li Yong plans to promote flexible oiling process equipment of different specifications in more than a dozen major cities across the country. If all of them are applied, about 1million tons of waste plastics can be treated every year, saving more than 100million yuan in treatment costs and 500 mu of landfill land

why is it called flexible? Facing the author's question, Li Yong said, "flexibility is the name I gave this process myself. There is no such professional term in the chemical industry."

Li Yong introduced that the most direct difference between the flexible process and other plastic oiling technologies is that the whole process flows from low, medium and high temperatures, slowly cracking and oiling waste plastics, rather than the high-temperature rapid cracking reaction adopted in "indigenous refining", so that plastics can be quickly gasified. "In the previous plastic oiling process, the chemical reaction was intense, and our process was soft, so it was called flexible."

the process of converting waste plastics into gasoline and diesel generally includes: plastic crushing - low temperature depolymerization and liquefaction - solid-liquid separation and distillation - high temperature heating slurry - catalytic cracking and gasification - condensation and separation - product oil. This set of process passed the identification and acceptance of new products and technologies by the Provincial Department of industry and information technology in November 2013. All performance indicators are leading in China, and mass production can be achieved

"other domestic waste plastic oiling processes are difficult to control the reaction temperature of raw materials in the low, medium and high range in the whole process, and the reaction temperature is mostly between 360 ℃ - 600 ℃, always running at a high level." Li Yong explained that by reasonably controlling the reaction conditions such as temperature and pressure, the flexible oiling process enables the cracking reaction of waste plastics to begin at 200 ℃ - 250 ℃, gradually transition to high temperature, and systematically classify and collect all kinds of oil products, avoiding the coking and polycondensation aromatization produced by excessive high-temperature cracking, reducing the coking rate of raw materials and the content of impurities in oil products

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